St. James's Cathedral.
Šibenik (Italian: Sebenico) is a historic city in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea. Šibenik is a political, educational, transport, industrial and tourist center of Šibenik–Knin County and also the 3rd largest city in the historic region of Dalmatia. It is the oldest native Croatian town on the shores of the sea.
Unlike other cities along the Adriatic coast, which were established by Greeks, Illyrians and Romans, Šibenik was founded by Croats. Excavations of the castle of Saint Michael, have since proven that the place was inhabited long before the actual arrival of the Croats. It was mentioned for the first time under its present name in 1066 in a Charter of the Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV and, for a period of time, it was a seat of this Croatian King. For that reason, Šibenik is also called "Krešimirov grad" (Krešimir's city). Between the 11th and 12th centuries, Šibenik was tossed back and forth among Venice, Byzantium, and Hungary. It was conquered by the Republic of Venice in 1116, who held it until 1124, when they briefly lost it to the Byzantine Empire, and then held it again until 1133 when it was retaken by the Kingdom of Hungary. It would change hands among the aforementioned states several more times until 1180. The city was given the status of a town in 1167 from Stephen III of Hungary. It received its own diocese in 1298. In the 14th century, "Vlachs" were present in the hinterland of Šibenik.
Under Venice and the Habsburgs
The city, like the rest of Dalmatia, initially resisted the Republic of Venice, but it was taken over after a three-year war in 1412. In August 1417, Venetian authorities were concerned with the "Morlachs and other Slavs" from the hinterland, that were a threat to security in Šibenik. The Ottoman Empire started to threaten Šibenik (known as Sebenico), as part of their struggle against Venice, at the end of the 15th century, but they never succeeded in conquering it. In the 16th century, St. Nicholas Fortress was built and, by the 17th century, its fortifications were improved again by the fortresses of St. John (Tanaja) and Šubićevac (Barone). The Morlachs started settling Šibenik during the Cretan War (1645–69). The fall of the Republic of Venice in 1797 brought Sebenico under the authority of the Habsburg Monarchy. After the Congress of Vienna until 1918, the town was (again) part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), head of the district of the same name, one of the 13 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Kingdom of Dalmatia. The Italian name only was used until around 1871. In 1872, at the time in the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Ante Šupuk became the town's first Croat mayor elected under universal suffrage. He was instrumental in the process of the modernization of the city, and is particularly remembered for the 1895 project to provide street lights powered by the early AC Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant. On 28 August 1895, Šibenik became the world's first city with alternating current-powered street lights.
After World War I, Šibenik was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy until 12 June 1921. As a result of the Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians gave up their claim to the city and it became a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II it was occupied by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Communist partisans entered Sibenik 3.11.1944. After WWII it became a part of the SFR Yugoslavia until Croatia declared independence in 1991.
The central church in Šibenik, the Cathedral of St. James, is on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Several successive architects built it completely in stone between 1431 and 1536, both in Gothic and in Renaissance style. The interlocking stone slabs of the Cathedral's roof were damaged when the city was shelled by Yugoslav forces in 1991. The damage has since been repaired.
In the city of Šibenik there are four fortresses, each of whom provides spectacular view on the city, sea and nearby islands. Fortresses nowadays serve as a tourist sightseeing with each of them having unique offers to tourists.
* St. Nicholas Fortress (Croatian: Tvrđava Sv. Nikole) is a fortress located on the island called Ljuljevac at the entrance of Šibenik channel across from the Jadrija beach lighthouse.
* Tvrđava Sv. Mihovil
* Tvrđava Sv. Ivan
* Tvrđava Šubićevac
Roughly 18 kilometres (11 mi) north of the city is the Krka National Park, similar to the more famous Plitvice Lakes National Park, renowned for its many waterfalls, flora, fauna, and historical and archaeological remains. The Kornati archipelago, west of Šibenik, consists of 150 islands in a sea area of about 320 km2 (124 sq mi), making it the densest archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The source: Wikipedia